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Teknụzụ siri ike na mgbanwe plastik, gụọ nke a ezuola!

Oge: 2023-04-24 09:28:05 Hits: 31

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Taa, plastik emezigharịrị na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na ndụ mba, ọkachasị na ngalaba akụrụngwa na akụrụngwa ụlọ, ebe ha na-arụ ọrụ na-enweghị atụ. Maka ọtụtụ ụdị nke teknụzụ plastik emezigharịrị, a mụọla teknụzụ siri ike plastik ma lebara ya anya site na ngalaba agụmakwụkwọ na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe, n'ihi na ihe siri ike nke ihe na-arụkarị ọrụ dị mkpa na ntinye nke ngwaahịa ahụ. M ga-aza ọtụtụ ajụjụ gbasara ike plastik:


   1. Kedu ka esi enyocha ma nyochaa ike nke plastik?

 

   2. Gịnị bụ ụkpụrụ nke plastic toughening?

 

   3. Kedu ụzọ ndị siri ike dị maka plastik?

 

   4. Gịnị bụ ihe ndị a na-ejikarị eme ihe ike?

 

   5. Olee otú ịghọta toughening ga-ebu ụzọ dịkwuo ike?

 

Njirimara nke ike plastik

 

Ihe ka ukwuu nke ihe siri ike nke ihe ahụ na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-adịghị mma, otú ahụ ka ihe siri ike na-esiwanye ike.

 

Ike siri ike, n'adịghị ka ihe siri ike, bụ ihe onwunwe nke na-egosipụta ịdị mfe nke nrụrụ nke ihe ahụ, nke na-eme ka ihe siri ike nke ihe na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-adịghị mma, nke na-esiwanye ike karị. N'ozuzu, ka ukwuu na isi ike, ihe ike ike, ike na-agba ọsọ, ntanye modul (Young's modulus), ekwe ike, ekwe modul bụ ibu; N'aka nke ọzọ, nke ukwuu nke siri ike, nke ukwuu na elongation na nkwụsịtụ na mmetụta ike. Ike mmetụta bụ ike nke ihe nlele ma ọ bụ akụkụ iji guzogide mmetụta ahụ, na-ezokarị aka na ike nke ihe nlele ahụ na-etinye tupu mgbawa. Ike mmetụta na-adịgasị iche n'ụdị nlele, usoro nnwale na ọnọdụ nlele, yabụ enweghị ike ịkewa dị ka ihe onwunwe bụ isi.

 

Nsonaazụ enwetara site na ụzọ nnwale mmetụta dị iche iche enweghị atụ

Ụzọ nyocha mmetụta, dị ka ule nyocha si dị, enwere mmetụta okpomọkụ nke ụlọ, mmetụta dị ala na okpomọkụ dị elu; dị ka ọnọdụ nrụgide ihe atụ, nwere ike kewaa n'ime mmetụta na-ehulata - mmetụta dị mfe na-egbuke egbuke na mmetụta nke cantilever, mmetụta nkwụsịtụ, mmetụta nke torsional na mmetụta shear; dị ka ike na-eji na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mmetụta, nwere ike kewaa n'ime a nnukwu ike mmetụta na obere ume mmetụta ule. Ihe dị iche iche ma ọ bụ ojiji dị iche iche nwere ike ịhọrọ ụzọ nnwale mmetụta dị iche iche, wee nweta nsonaazụ dị iche iche, nsonaazụ ndị a enweghị atụ.

 

Usoro siri ike na ihe na-emetụta plastik

 

(A) Ozizi ụkpụrụ-shiee band Silver

 

N'ime usoro ngwakọta nke rọba siri ike, ọrụ nke akụkụ rọba bụ nke kachasị n'akụkụ abụọ:

N'otu aka ahụ, dị ka etiti nke ntinye uche nke nrụgide, mee ka matrix ahụ mepụta ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ahịrị ọlaọcha na ihe nkedo; N'aka nke ọzọ, na-achịkwa mmepe nke ahịrị ọlaọcha ka ahịrị ọlaọcha kwụsị n'oge ma ghara ịmalite ịghọ mgbawa na-ebibi ihe.

 

Ubi mgbakasị ahụ na njedebe nke ọka ọlaọcha nwere ike ịkpata ụgbụ ajị anụ ma mee ka ọka ọlaọcha kwụsị. Ọ na-akwụsịkwa mmepe nke ọlaọcha mgbe ọ na-agbasa na mpaghara shear. Ọgbọ na mmepe nke ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke Silverline na shear bands na-eri ike dị ukwuu mgbe ihe ahụ na-enwe nrụgide, si otú ahụ na-eme ka ihe ahụ dịkwuo njọ. A na-egosipụta n'ụzọ macroscopically Silvering dị ka ihe na-eme ka mgbakasị ahụ na-eme ka ọ dị ọcha, ebe a na-ejikọta shear banding na ezigbo olu, nke na-adịgasị iche n'ụdị rọba dị iche iche.

 

Dị ka ihe atụ, HIPS matrix siri ike bụ obere, silvering, stressing ọcha, silvering olu na-abawanye, transverse akụkụ bụ isi agbanwebeghị, tensile na-enweghị ezi olu; PVC siri ike, ike nke matrix buru ibu, na-ekwenye ekwenye na-abụkarị site na mmachi, enwere olu dị mma, enweghị mgbakasị ahụ; HIPS/PPO, silvering, shiee band nwere oke oke, ezigbo olu na ihe na-eme ka mgbakasị ahụ dị ọcha n'otu oge.

 

(B) ihe na-emetụta mmetụta nke ike plastik bụ isi ihe atọ

1, njirimara nke resin isi

Nnyocha na-egosi na imeziwanye ike nke resin matrix na-enyere aka melite mmetụta siri ike nke plastik siri ike, melite ike nke resin matrix nwere ike nweta site n'ụzọ ndị a: mee ka ọkpụkpụ molekụla nke resin matrix, nke mere na ịdị arọ nke molekul. nkesa na-aghọ warara; melite ike site na ịchịkwa ma crystallization na crystallinity, kristal nha na kristal udi. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na-agbakwunye ihe ndị na-emepụta ihe na PP iji mee ka ọnụ ọgụgụ kristal dị elu ma nụchaa kristal, si otú a na-eme ka ọkpụkpụ siri ike dịkwuo mma.

 

2, Toughening gị n'ụlọnga Njirimara na onunu ogwu

(1) mmetụta nke toughening gị n'ụlọnga chụsasịrị frasi urughuru size - n'ihi na elastomeric toughened rọba, e ji mara nke isi resin dị iche iche, kasị mma uru nke achụsasịrị frasi akụkụ nke elastomer abụghị otu. Dị ka ihe atụ, kasị mma uru urughuru size na HIPS bụ 0.8 ~ 1.3μm, kasị mma urughuru size na ABS bụ banyere 0.3μm, na kasị mma urughuru size na PVC-gbanwetụrụ ABS bụ banyere 0.1μm.

(2) mmetụta nke toughening gị n'ụlọnga usoro onunu ogwu - E nwere ezigbo uru nke toughening gị n'ụlọnga mgbakwunye, nke metụtara urughuru spacing oke.

(3) Mmetụta nke iko mgbanwe okpomọkụ nke toughening gị n'ụlọnga - n'ozuzu ala iko mgbanwe okpomọkụ nke elastomer, mma ndị toughening mmetụta.

(4) Mmetụta nke ike interfacial nke onye na-eme ihe ike na resin isi - usoro dị iche iche, mmetụta nke ike njikọ dị iche iche na mmetụta siri ike dịgasị iche iche.

(5) Mmetụta nke elastomeric toughening agent structure - na ụdị elastomer, ogo njikọ njikọ, wdg.

 

3, ike njikọ dị n'etiti akụkụ abụọ ahụ

Njikọ dị mma n'etiti akụkụ abụọ ahụ nwere ike ime ka nrụgide ahụ nwee ike ịnyefe n'ụzọ dị irè n'etiti usoro iji rie ike karị, nke ka mma n'ozuzu arụmọrụ nke nnukwu plastik, karịsịa mmụba dị ịrịba ama na ike mmetụta. Ọtụtụ mgbe, enwere ike ịghọta ike njikọ a dị ka mmekọrịta dị n'etiti akụkụ abụọ ahụ, graft copolymerization na block copolymerization bụ usoro a na-ahụkarị iji mee ka njikọ nke akụkụ abụọ ahụ dịkwuo elu, ihe dị iche bụ na ha na-etolite njikọ kemịkalụ site na njikọ kemịkalụ, dị ka akado. copolymers HIPS, ABS, ngọngọ copolymers SBS, polyurethane.

 

Maka ihe ndị na-eme ka ike sie ike iji mee ka plastik sie ike, ọ bụ nke usoro nhazi anụ ahụ. The ezigbo ngwakọta usoro kwesịrị abụọ components bụ akụkụ dakọtara na onye ọ bụla na-adọ, e nwere ihe interfacial oyi akwa n'etiti usoro, na interfacial oyi akwa nke abụọ polymer molekul chains agbasa ibe ha, e nwere doro anya ịta gradient, site na ịba ụba ndakọrịta n'etiti. ihe ndị a na-agwakọta, nke mere na ha nwere njikọ dị mma, wee mee ka mgbasawanye nke mgbasa ozi interface dịkwuo elu, mee ka ọkpụkpụ nke interfacial dị elu. Nke a bụ teknụzụ bụ isi maka ime ka plastik sie ike na ịkwadebe alloys polymer - teknụzụ ndakọrịta polymer!

 

Kedu ọnọdụ chọrọ ike siri ike? Kedu usoro ndị a?

 

(A) Gịnị bụ mkpa maka ike siri ike

 

1, resin sịntetik n'onwe ya esighi ike, ọ dị mkpa imeziwanye ike iji gboo iji ihe achọrọ, dị ka GPPS, homopolymer PP, wdg.

 

2, na-emeziwanye ike nke rọba ahụ nke ukwuu, iji nweta ike siri ike, ọnọdụ okpomọkụ dị ala, ihe achọrọ ogologo oge, dị ka naịlọn siri ike.

 

3, resin ejupụtala, ọkụ retardant na mgbanwe ndị ọzọ kpatara ọdịda nke arụmọrụ nke ihe onwunwe, n'oge a ga-adị irè ike.

 

(B) ka esi ekewaa usoro ike ike rọba

 

1, roba elastomer toughening: EPR (ethylene propylene diene), EPDM (EPDM), butadiene roba (BR), eke roba (NR), isobutylene roba (IBR), nitrile roba (NBR), wdg, ọdabara niile plastic resin mgbanwe mgbanwe.

 

2, thermoplastic elastomer toughening: SBS, SEBS, POE, TPO, TPV, wdg, nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe maka polyolefin ma ọ bụ na-abụghị polar resin toughening, maka polyester, polyamide na ndị ọzọ na-arụ ọrụ pola nwere polymer toughening mkpa ịgbakwunye compatibilizer.

 

3, isi-shell copolymers na reactive terpolymer toughening: ACR (acrylates), MBS (methyl acrylate - butadiene - styrene copolymer), PTW (ethylene - butyl acrylate - glycidyl methacrylate copolymer), E-MA - GMA (ethylene - methyl acrylate). glycidyl methacrylate copolymer), wdg, nke a na-ejikarị na plastik injinia na polymer na-eguzogide okpomọkụ dị elu Alloy toughening.

 

4, elu siri ike plastic blending toughening: PP / PA, PP / ABS, PA / ABS, HIPS / PPO, PPS / PA, PC / ABS, PC / PBT, wdg, polymer alloy technology bụ ụzọ dị mkpa iji kwadebe elu siri ike. plastik injinia.

 

5, ụzọ ndị ọzọ nke siri ike: nano-particle toughening (dị ka nano-CaCO3), sarin resin (DuPont metal ionomer) toughening, wdg;

 

A na-enwetakarị plastik General site na mgbakwunye free radical polymerization, molecular main yinye na n'akụkụ yinye enweghị polar otu, siri ike site na-agbakwunye roba ahụ na elastomer ahụ nwere ike nweta mma toughening mmetụta; na plastik engineering na-enwetakarị site na condensation polymerization, molecular yinye n'akụkụ yinye ma ọ bụ ọgwụgwụ otu nwere pola otu, siri ike site na-agbakwụnye functionalized roba ma ọ bụ elastomer ahụ ike elu.

resinIhe ndị na-eme ka ike sie ikeIhe ndị na-eme ka ike sie ike nke a na-ejikarị eme mgbanwe siri ike
PolyolefinNR,EPR,EPDM,SBS,SEBS,EVAPOE,EPDM
PVCNBR, MBS, CPE, TPU, ABS, ACRCPE, ACR
ABSCPE, ACR, nnukwu chịngọm ntụ ntụAkwa chịngọm ntụ ntụ
PCMBS, rọba acrylate nwere siliconMBS
PBT/PETE-GMA,EPDM-GMA,POE-GMA,Core-shell copolymers, ionomersPOE-GMA,E-MA-GMA
PA

NBR, EPDM, SBS, SEBS na POE na ya kwekọrọ graft copolymer, isi-shell copolymer.

.UHMWPE,TAPE

POE-MA,SEBS-MA,EPDM-MA
PPOHIPS, SEBS-MA, POE-MAHIPS
PPSSEBS-MA,HDPE-MA,TLCP,ionomer,PTFE,E-MA-GMASEBS-MA, E-MA-

Kedu ka esi aghọta isi ihe na-eme ka ike sie ike bụ ịbawanye ikike?

 

N'ikwu okwu n'ozuzu, plastik na-amịkọrọ ma gbasaa ike n'ime usoro ntinye aka nke ihu, cavitation na matrix shear na-ekwenye ekwenye mgbe a na-etinye ya n'aka ndị agha mpụga, ma e wezụga maka resins plastik na-abụghị polar nke nwere ike ime ka ọ sie ike site n'ịgbakwụnye elastomeric ahụ na ezigbo ndakọrịta (ụkpụrụ ndakọrịta yiri nke ahụ) , ndị ọzọ pola resins chọrọ irè capacitance iji nweta kacha nzube nke toughening. Ọtụtụ ụdị copolymers graft ndị a kpọtụrụ aha na mbụ dị ka ndị na-eme ka ike sie ike ga-enwe mmekọrịta siri ike na mkpụrụ, dịka ọmụmaatụ:

 

(1) Toughening na epoxy functional group type: otu epoxy meghere mgbanaka wee meghachi omume na polymer terminal hydroxyl otu, carboxyl otu ma ọ bụ amine otu na mgbakwunye mmeghachi omume.

 

(2) Core-shell toughening: ndị na-arụ ọrụ dị n'èzí na-arụ ọrụ zuru oke na akụrụngwa na roba na-arụ ọrụ siri ike.

 

(3) Ionomer ụdị toughening: site n'enyemaka nke mgbagwoju n'etiti metal ion na carboxylic acid mgbọrọgwụ nke polymer chains na-etolite a anụ ahụ cross-njikọ netwọk, si otú na-egwu a toughening ọrụ.

 

 N'ezie, ọ bụrụ na a na-ahụta onye na-eme ka ike sie ike dị ka klas nke polymers, ọ ga-ekwe omume ịgbatị ụkpụrụ ikike a na ngwakọta polymer niile. Tebụl na-esonụ, nkwadebe ụlọ ọrụ nke ngwakọta polymer bara uru, ike na-emeghachi omume bụ teknụzụ anyị ga-eji, mgbe ahụ, onye na-eme ihe ike nwere ihe dị iche iche pụtara, "mgbakọ siri ike", "interface emulsifier" aha bụ ihe osise kachasị mma!

 

Na nchịkọta, plastic toughening, ma maka crystalline plastics ma ọ bụ amorphous plastics dokwara mkpa, na site n'ozuzu-ebumnobi plastics, engineering plastics na pụrụ iche engineering plastik iji jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ mee ka okpomọkụ ya na-eguzogide, ọnụ ahịa na-arị elu, nke mere na okpomọkụ na-eguzogide nke toughening. elekọta mmadụ, ịka nká na-eguzogide, wdg na-etinye n'ihu elu chọrọ, kamakwa na plastic mgbanwe toughening technology a nnukwu ule, na ihe ndị kasị mkpa bụkwa ihe kasị oké egwu otu bụ na matriks na components ịnọgide na-enwe ezi ndakọrịta!


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